Regular daily exercise, maintaining a healthy weight and body, reducing or even avoiding high-calorie foods that contain a high level of cholesterol and fats, or containing salt levels above the required, help to reduce serious diseases such as cardiovascular disease and others High blood pressure is one of the most preventable diseases.
The level of blood pressure is determined by two factors, the amount of blood pumping the heart and the amount of resistance of blood vessels to the passage of blood. Increased blood pressure or narrowing of blood vessels increased blood pressure, which is one of the most serious and serious diseases of the cardiovascular system;
Treatment of hypertension
The treatment of hypertension, like other diseases of the body, is divided into two main parts, the first is to change the bad lifestyle, and away from wrong practices that make the situation worse, and the second is the use of antihypertensive drugs to prevent new complications.
Modify the patient’s lifestyle
- The patient must radically change his lifestyle and lifestyle.
- Weight reduction.
- Reduce the amount of salt consumed in food to less than 6 g per day, or less than 3 g if the disease is associated with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes.
- Stop smoking and drinking alcohol, and reduce stimulant drinks.
- Sport, playing light sports such as walking for half an hour a day is very useful in the treatment of stress as well as protection from many other diseases.
- Eat more healthy foods, such as vegetables and fruits, and stay away from high-fat foods.
- Stay away from the tense atmosphere and psychological pressures.
Compression medications are prescribed if the patient is diagnosed by a physician. They should be started as soon as the systolic blood pressure is consistently above 140, or the diastolic pressure is above 90 continuously. For patients with other chronic conditions, pressure should be kept below 140/90.
Doctors also recommend using aspirin in mild doses daily, cholesterol-lowering Medications and lipids in the blood, to reduce the risk of blood clots. In addition to adherence to the Medications of pressure, which is based on reducing it, and multiple pressure-reducing Medications how they work and the impact of force, including:
- Alpha and beta-blockers.
- Anti-angiotensin drugs.
- Calcium channel blockers.
Diuretics rid the body of excessive fluids and salts, which leads to lowering blood pressure. Potassium deficiency, which affects the heart muscle, the most famous of these drugs hydrochlorothiazide. Another type of diuretic is called loop diuretics, such as furosemide, which is used to treat severe hypertension, kidney failure, and some heart disease.
Beta-blockers are medications used to lower blood pressure, which reduce the workload of the heart by reducing the heart’s nerve alerts, reducing contractility and slowing down, and reducing blood vessel resistance. It is a competitive antibiotic divided into several types, including non-quality that works on beta receptors beta-1 and beta-2, and the quality that works on the receptor beta-1 only, and have several side effects are not recommended for use in cases of asthma or other pulmonary diseases , And are not as effective when used alone, especially for the elderly, these drugs are usually disposed with other pressure medicines to be more effective.
The alpha-blockers are a drug directly affecting blood vessels, where they work to prevent the effect of hormone norepinephrine, which leads to relaxation of blood vessels and reduce the resistance, the pressure decreases accordingly, such as doxazosin and prazosin, and have other effects such as lowering cholesterol and improve In response to insulin, side effects are many and dizziness is one of the most annoying, and to relieve this symptom doctors prescribe these drugs in small doses, which then gradually increase.
It is one of the best drugs used to reduce pressure, especially for patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. These include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), a substance that relaxes blood vessels, which leads to hypotension. Examples include captopril and benazepril. The main side effects of these drugs are renal failure, especially in patients with atherosclerosis of the kidneys. Dry cough and high potassium and others, and is prohibited to give to pregnant women for fear of the health of the fetus, and alternatives to this drug anti-angiotensin receptors, where it works to prevent the binding of this substance to its receptors on the surface of the cells and prevent their work, and given to those who are banned Inhibitory priority. (ACEI).
Calcium channel blockers
It is one of the important drugs used, as it relaxes the walls of blood vessels and reduce the heart effort by preventing the entry of calcium to muscle cells and reduces contractility, the most important of these drugs amlodipine and diltiazem, and is usually used with other pressure drugs to increase their effectiveness. But these drugs have several side effects, the most important of which are head pain and dizziness, and should be cautious while using them if drinking grapefruit juice; because it increases the concentration of these drugs in the blood, which increases the likelihood of exposure to side effects.
Renin is an enzyme produced by the kidneys that initiate a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to high blood pressure, such as aliskiren. It should be borne in mind that this drug is not taken with both anti-angiotensin drugs because they increase the risk of complications, most importantly stroke.
Treatment of pernicious blood pressure
It is a serious condition in which blood pressure rises to more than (220/120), in which the patient feels multiple symptoms such as severe headaches, vision problems that may lead to loss of vision, confusion in the mental state, severe vomiting, and other symptoms. Therefore, this is an emergency in which the patient must be admitted to the hospital and receive appropriate treatment, before the disease causes serious and serious damage to the patient’s body, where the blood pressure is gradually reduced, and the patient is given several drugs, the most important of which is sodium nitroprusside intravenously until Returning to the near-normal position, where treatment turns to oral medications.