Diabetes in numbers
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important chronic diseases that challenge health and medical organizations worldwide. According to the World Health Organization,  the International Diabetes Federation estimates that by 2040, the number of people infected will reach 642 million.
What is diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disease, caused either by a lack of production of the hormone insulin from the pancreas, or the inability of the cells of the body to respond to insulin, which leads to an increase in the level of blood glucose than normal.
There are two main types of diabetes: type 1, which occurs when the human body is unable to produce insulin due to a malfunction of the immune system, where immune cells attack insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas, while type (type) second, It is most commonly caused by the inability of the cells of the body to respond to the hormone insulin despite the efficiency and ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, due to an unknown reason.
Children and young people are the most vulnerable to type 1 diabetes, while type 2 diabetes is common among people over the age of 45. Another less common type of predecessor is diabetes, which is diagnosed and detected for the first time during pregnancy, known as gestational diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes
As for the common symptoms of diabetes, it is observed a number of symptoms; such as increased urination even at night, and the continued thirst resulting from the loss of fluid from the body due to urination, diabetes also causes severe hunger, in addition to persistent fatigue without effort, and blurred vision, Slow wound healing. These symptoms are not very different in the first type of the second, but the symptoms in the second type are less severe, and this delays the detection and diagnosis of people with it.
Symptoms of the first pattern
There are many similar symptoms between type I and type II, but there are some symptoms for patients with type I, the following are the most important:
- Severe thirst.
- The dramatic increase in the rate of urination.
- A permanent feeling of tiredness.
- Loss of muscle mass and unexplained weight loss.
- Sudden cramps and intestinal colic.
- Blurred vision due to dry eyes.
- Skin infections, with itching around the genitals.
Symptoms of the second pattern
Type 2 diabetes slowly worsens, as it takes many years to develop in the patient, as well as its symptoms, which gradually form, and this makes people with type II oblivious to their infection, and discover their infection through periodic examinations and not through the emergence of symptoms of the disease, and the following, The main symptoms of type II:
- Continuous feeling of hunger, and a sense of hunger shortly after eating.
- Feeling tired and weak, especially after eating meals.
- Feeling very thirsty.
- Increased urination, especially at night.
- Blurry vision.
- Feeling particularly itchy around the genitals.
- Slow wound healing.
- Recurrent fungal infections.
- Sudden weight loss.
- Pigmentation of the skin, especially in the neck and armpit.
Complications of diabetes
People with diabetes are at risk for many diseases and health problems as a result of high or low blood sugar, but these complications can be avoided or delayed by keeping the sugar level within normal levels. The complications of diabetes are divided into two parts according to the time period that these complications need to worsen and develop in the patient: type I; acute complications resulting from a sudden change in blood sugar level, type II; The following are the main complications associated with diabetes:
Lack of sugar level
Hypoglycemia The hypoglycemia is caused by increased insulin efficacy, which is attributed to a defect in insulin or glucose-lowering medications, or insulin or medication compatibility with meals. Hypoglycemia is defined as a decrease in blood sugar level of 72 mg / dL, at which point symptoms of fatigue, general weakness, disturbance, high heart rate, and excessive sweating appear on the patient. Hypoglycemia is treated by eating 15-20 grams of fast-absorbing sugars (simple, uncomplicated sugars) such as glucose. Tablets, paying attention to avoiding oral administration if the patient is unconscious.
Diabetic ketoacidosis The high level of ketones in the urine is caused by a deficiency of the hormone insulin in the body, often with people with type 1 diabetes because the cells of the pancreas are damaged and unable to produce insulin. When the insulin level in the body decreases, it is difficult for glucose to enter the cells of the body to use it as a source of energy. This leads to the body’s dependence on the breakdown of fats to produce energy, and the process of breaking down fats are secondary compounds, such as acid ketones. The main dependence on breaking down fat to produce energy due to insulin deficiency leads to the accumulation of acid ketones in the blood to start the following symptoms:
- Hyperventilation (increased frequency of breathing)
- High heart rate.
- Disturbance and confusion.
- The acetone-like odor from the mouth.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is treated with intravenous fluid replacement, and insulin doses are given to convert the energy source from breaking down fat to breaking down glucose to reduce acid ketone production.